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The Internet

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(Last Updated On: February 12, 2018)

The future is here, we’re living in it. Science fiction has become the science. Everywhere you look you see smartphones, tablets, TV’s and devices that essentially connect us from one part of the world to the other without much delay.

The world that we’re living in is interconnected and the Internet is the reason why.

1800’s-1948

  • In 1873 the first fully digital communication system was created, the Telegraph.
  • The Telegraph and Telex machines would transmit data from point to point through an electromagnetic medium, radio or an electrical wire.
  • In 1948 Claude Shannon created the Information Theory with the fundamental results being source coding theorem. This helped transmit reliable communication over noisy channels.

1950’s

  • In the 1950’s Computers were invented.
  • Early Computers allowed the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to connect to remote terminals. This essentially is a precursor of what we know to be the Cloud today.
  • Around the 1950’s Packet Networking originated.

1960’s

  • In the early 1960’s the US Department of Defense awarded contracts for the development of ARPANET. (A packet network system)
  • In 1965 Emails where created as a way of allowing the users of a network to communicate.
  • In the mid-1960’s the precursor to Instant Messaging was created on systems like the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) and Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (Multics)
  • In 1969 the first message was sent from UCLA to the second network node at the Stanford Research Institute.
  • In the late 1960s and early 1970s packet switching networks were developed with communications protocols. This created protocols for internetworking.

1970’s

  • In 1971 Emails received the @ sign to separate mailbox names from their hostnames.
  • In 1971 the ARPANET is used to arrange the sale of Cannabis between Stanford and MIT, the first act of E-commerce.
  • In 1974 the name “Internet” was adopted to define the interconnections of the different networks created.
  • In 1979 the first online shopping system is created.

1980’s

  • Access to ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network.
  • In 1982 the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was introduced as a standard.
  • In 1984 Compuserve launches the Electronic Mall which sets up the first complete electronic commerce service.
  • In 1986 universities and government agencies were using the internet.
  • In 1986 although the Internet has no governance, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) which provides the technical direction for the internet was created.
  • With the growth of the internet, Commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs) began to emerge for a more public use of the internet.
  • In 1989 Sir. Tim Berners-Lee invented a network-based implementation of hypertext which is known as the modern day World Wide Web. It was also the first web browser, which was later renamed Nexus.

1990’s

  • In 1990 the ARPANET was decommissioned.
  • In 1994 the first Smartphone was invented (although the term wasn’t coined at the time), it was the Simon Personal Communicator, and it could make and receive calls as well as send and receive faxes. You could use it to email and it had other apps.
  • In 1994 Marc Andreesen invented the browser Netscape Navigator which accounted for 90% of all web users.
  • The Search Engines where a system to index the information on the Internet, some of those are; Yahoo in 1994, Altavista in 1995, and Google in 1998.
  • In the mid-1990’s PowWow, ICQ, and AOL Instant Messenger started popularizing Instant Messaging.
  • In the late 1990s, many mobile phone users carried a device called a PDA which was a small device that would operate various Operating Systems separate from the Cellphone.
  • In 1995 Microsoft created the Internet Explorer browser and as it was bundled with the operating system Windows it peaked at over 95% of usage share by 2002.
  • In 1998 (ICANN) the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers was created. They provide oversight for namespaces in the Internet protocol address space and the Doman Name System.
  • In 1998 Netscape launched the Mozilla Foundation which eventually became Firefox.
  • In 1999 Napster became the first peer to peer file sharing system.
  • In 1999 the first mobile internet serviceImode was created and this was considered the birth of the mobile phone.

2000’s

  • In early 2000, the Ericsson R380 was the first device marketed as a “Smartphone”.
  • In the early 2000s, the Dot-com bubble helped the internet take off. Companies started seeing the profitability of doing business via-Internet and everyone started using web services as a method of achieving profits with fewer expenditures.
  • During the early 2000s, many companies start seeing profits. Alibaba.com achieved profitability, eBay acquires PayPal, Amazon.com posts first yearly profit.
  • In 2001 the mobile phone email system Research in Motion for the Blackberry product was launched in America.
  • In 2004 a major development was the introduction of the telephone calls using the Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) or VoIP or Voice over Internet Protocol.
  • In the early 2000’s Social Networking is established with the birthplace of the Social Media titans we know today.
  • In 2003 LinkedIn is launched.
  • In 2004 Facebook is launched.
  • In 2006 Twitter is created.
  • In 2007 Apple Inc. introduced the iPhone.
  • In 2008 the first Android operated device the HTC Dream was released.
  • In 200880% of all PBX (Private Branch Exchange) lines installed internationally were VoIP.
  • In 2010 the Internet is accessible in Space (before this they uses point to point links through the Deep Space Network)
  • As of 2011 Firefox has 28% of usage share through its browser.
  • In April 2014 Chromes browser usage had more than 45% of the market share for browsers.

The Internet has come a long way from its beginnings. With a couple key breakthroughs at its beginnings, we’ve seen technology advance rapidly year to year. Seeing where we were, and where we are, it’s hard to fathom where we’ll be. With the nature of this evolution, what we see in movies today as science fiction might very well be tomorrow’s science.

 
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